ILLINOIS HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS
Village I was met by the Chiefs of that Nation who received us very kindly the most Part of these Indians Knew me and conducted us to their Village where they immediately hoisted an English Flag which I had formerly given them at Fort Pitt: The Next Day they held a Council after which they gave me up all the English Prisoners they had then made Several speeches in all which they express the great pleasure it gave them to see the unhappy Difference which embroiled the several Nations in A War with their Brethren the English, was now so near a happy Conclusion, and that Peace was Established in their Country.
The Twightwee Village is situated on both
Sides of a River called St Josephs. this River where it falls
1" stockade "
2New paragraph in Thwaites.
CROGHAN'S JOURNAL, AUGUST 17, 1765
ceeded to the Ottawa Village. This Nation formerly lived at De Troit but now settled here on account of the Richness of the Country where Game is always to be found in Plenty here we were oblidged to get out of our Cannoes and drag them I8 Miles on Account of the Rifts that interrupt the Navigation at the End of these Rifts we came to a Village of the Weyondetts who received us very Kindly and from thence we proceeded to the Mouth of this River where it falls into Lake Erie From the Miames to the Lake is computed I80 Miles and from the Entrance of the River into the Lake to De Troit is 60 Miles that is 42 Miles upon1 the Lake and I8 Miles up the De Troit River to the Garrison of that Name. The Land on the Lake Side is low & Flat we passed several large rivers and Bays and on the
I6th of August in the afternoon we arrived at De Troit River the Country here is much higher than on the Lake Side the River is about 900 Yards Wide and the Currant runs very Strong there are several large and fine Islands in this River one of which is nine Miles long its Banks High and the Soil very good.
I7th In the
Morning we arrived at the Fort which is a large Struckadoe inclosing about 80
Houses it Stands Closs [sic ] on the North Side of the River
on a high Bank commands a very pleasant Prospect for 9 Miles above and 9
Miles below the Fort the Country is thick Settled with French their
Plantations are laid out 3 or 4 Acres in Breadth on the River and 80 Acres in
depth The Soil is good producing Plenty of Grain. all the People here
are generally poor Wretches and consist of three or four Hundred Families a
lazy idle people depending chiefly on the Savages for their Maintenance2
Tho the Land with little Labour produces plenty of Grain they Scarcely
raiss [sic ] as much as supply their wants. in imatation of
the Indians whose Manners and Customs they have intirely adopted and cannot
Subject3 without them the Men woman and Childrin Speak the
Indian Tongue perfectly well in the last Indian War the most Part of the
French were concerned in it altho the Whole Settlement had taken the Oath of
Allegiance to his Britannic Majesty they have therefore great Reason to
bee thankfull to the English Clemency in not bringing them to deserved
Punishment: Before the late Indian War there
1"up" instead of "upon."
ILLINOIS HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS
resided three Nations of Indians at this Place the Puttawattimes whose Village was on the West Side of the River about one Mile below the Fort the Ottawas on the East Side about three Miles above the Fort and the Wayondetts whose Village lays on the East Side about 2 Miles below the Fort the Former two Nations have removed to a Considerable Distance off and the latter still remain where they were and are remarkable for their good Sense and Hospitality they have a particular Attachment to the Roman Catholic Religion the French by their Priest having taken uncommon Pains to instruct them During my stay here I Held frequent Conferencees with the different Nations of Indians assembled at this Place with whom I settled matters to their general Satisfaction.
Septr 26th We set out from De Troit for Niagair1 passed Lake Erie along the North Shore in Birch Cannoe and arrived the
8th of October at Niagair. The Navigation of the Lake is dangerous for Batteaux or Cannoes by reason the Lake is very Shallow for a Considerable Distance from the Shore the Bank for several Miles High and steep and affords a Harbour for a Single Batteaux The Lands in general betwen De Troit and Niagai are High and the Soil Good with Several fine Rivers falling into the Lake.
The Distance from
De Troit to Niagair is computed 300 Miles.
CROGHAN'S OFFICIAL JOURNAL, May I5, 1765-September 25, 17652
[P.R.O., C.O., 323.23, f. I45-C.]
Journal & Transactions of George Croghan
Esqr Deputy Agent
for Indian Affairs with the several Indian Nations on his Journey to
the Ilinois as delivered by him to Sir William Johnson Baronet on his return.
1Niagara is spelled correctly in the other version.
2This has been called the "official journal" because it contains an account of Croghan's dealings with the Indians and is the one that was sent to the ministry. Besides the copy from which the above is transcribed, there is one in P.R.O., C.O., 5.66, f. I73, which was originally sent by Croghan to Benjamin Franklin in a letter which is printed later (post, 60). The endorsements on that copy are in the handwriting of Franklin. The official journal has been printed several times. It first appeared in Hildreth's Pioneer History (68-85), the copy being made from a transcript found among George Morgan's papers. It is printed also in New York Colonial Documents (7: 779-788) from the same copy as the one we have used above. Thwaites prints a combination of the two journals in his Early Western Travels (I:I26-I73), copying this journal from the New York Colonial Documents. We have supplied the omissions in the board of trade copy from the Franklin copy.
CROGHAN'S JOURNAL, JUNE 7, 1765
May I5th I sett off from Fort Pitt,1 & next day was Joined by the Deputies who were to Accompany me, on which I continued my Journey.2
May I9th Sent a Message to the Shawanese by Land for some of them to bring to me the French Traders, that yet remained in their Country to the Mouth of Sciota, that I might take them with me to their own Country, as they would not be3 suffered to Trade there 'till they had obtained permission from His Excellcy General Gage & Sir William Johnson.
23d We arrived at the Mouth of Sciota where we Encamp'd.
26th Several of the Shawanese came there, & brought with them 7 French Traders which they delivered to me, those being all that resided in their Villages, & told me there was yet Six more living with the Delawares, that on their return to their Towns, they would go to the Delawares & get them to send those French Traders home: & told me they were determined to do every thing in their power to convince me of their Sincerity & good disposition to preserve a Peace.
28th Set off down the River, & on the 6th June we Arrived at the Mouth of the Ouabache, where we found a Breastwork put up by the Indians & saw several Tracks4 which we suspected had been made by some Indians who might be5 sent there to waylay us, on which we proceeded six miles lower down the River & Encamped.
June 7th I
dispatched two Indians off to the Ilinois with a letter to Mr
Frazier,6 & another to Mr St Ange
by which I Acquainted Mr Frazier of my Success in settleing matters
with the different Nations at Fort Pitt. I furnished those two Deputies with
Wampum to acquaint the Nations there of wt had passed et Fort Pitt
which I judged necessary in order to Facilitate the Service7 should Mr
La Gutrie8 be arrived there.
1This copy has been compared with that in Hildreth, Pioneer History, 68-85, which was transcribed from a copy once in the possession of George Morgan, friend and fellow speculator of Croghan, and the variants of importance are in the notes. Under May I5, the Hildreth copy has after "Fort Pitt": "and encamped at Schertree's Island."
2"May I6th. Being joined by the several deputies that were to accompany me, we set off at seven o'clock in the morning."
4" trails "
5" have been "
6" Fraser "
7"good of the service"
8For De la Gauterais and Sinnott, see ante, I :405-417.
ILLINOIS HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS
June 8th At day break we were Attacked by a party of 80 Warriors of the Kickapoos & Musquattamies, who killed three of the Shawanese Deputies & wounded another. two of my Men were killed, they then plundered us of every thing we had, our Indians as well as us, & then made us prisoners. After this they told us they were sorry for what had happened, that they had been employed by the French their Fathers, who had told them it was Cherokees that was1 with me, & that there was no Peace made with the Shawanese, Delawares & Six Nations, they then sett the Indian Prisoners at liberty taking me & my party with them.
I5th We arrived at Post Vincent where there is a French Village of about 80 houses, & an Indian Village of the Pyankeshas, here I met several Indians whom I had been acquainted with, who spoke to the party I was with, and desired them to take great Care of me 'till the Chiefs of the several Nations would return from the Ilinois where they had gone in Order to meet me, and reprimanded this party for their bad Conduct.
Here I was informed by the French of the Arrival of Mr La Gutrie & Mr Sinott [sic ] at the Ilinois, with an Account of the bad reception2 & ill treatment Mr Frazier & Mr Sinnott met with on their Arrival there.
I6th The Indians allowed me to write to Mr St Ange but would not suffer me to send a letter to MrSinnott, nor could I get any Frenchman in that Town to furnish me with Pen, Ink or Paper, without the Consent of the Indians.
I7th We set off & the 23d arrived at Ouiatonon, where this party had sett out from, on my Arrival at this place I met Numbers of Indians with whom I was formerly well acquainted, & who were extremely Civil to me & my party.
30th The several Chiefs belonging to those Villages at Ouiatonon arrived from the Ilinois, & there were with them the Chiefs of several other Nations who came to see me, & expressed their great concern at what had happened.
July Ist A
Frenchman arrived from the Ilinois with a Pipe and Speech from thence to the
Kickapoos & Musquattamies, to have me
2" with an account of the ill treatment Mr. Fraser had met with, and likewise of the ill reception Mr. Sinnott met with on his arrival there."
CROGHAN'S JOURNAL, JULY 13, 1765
Burnt, this Speech was said to be sent from a Shawanese Indn who resides at the Ilinois, & has been during the War, & is much Attached to the French interest. As soon as this Speech was delivered to the Indians by the French, the Indians informed me of it in Council, & expressed their great concern for what had already happened, & told me they then sett me & my People at liberty, & assured me they despised the Message sent them, and would return the Pipe & Belt to their Fathers the French, and enquire into the reason of such a Message being sent them by one of his Messengers, & desired me to stay with them 'till the Deputies of the Six Nations, Shawanese & Delawares arrived with Pondiac at Ouiatonon in order to settle matters, to wh I consented.
From1 4th to the 8th I had several Conferences with the Wawcotonans, Pyankeeshas, Kickapoos, & Musquatamies in which Conferences I was lucky enough to reconcile those Nations to His Majesties Interest & obtain their Consent and Approbation to take Possession of any Posts in their Country which the French formerly possessed, & an offer of their Service should any Nation oppose our taking possession of it, all which they Confirmed by four large Pipes.
IIth Mr Maisonville arrived with an Interpreter & a message to the Indians to bring me & my party to the Illinois, till then I had no answer from Mr St Ange to the Letter I wrote him of the I6th June, as I wanted to go to the Ilinois I desired the Chiefs to prepare themselves & set off with me as soon as possible.
I2th I wrote to General Gage & Sir William Johnson, to Colo Campbell at Detroit, & Major Murray at Fort Pitt2 & Major [Farmer] at Mobiel [sic ] or on his way to the Mississipi, & acquainted [them with] every thing that had happened since my departure from [Fort Pitt].3
July I3th The
Chiefs of the Twightwees4 came to me from the Miamis and renewed
their Antient Friendship with His Majesty & all His Subjects in America
& Confirmed it with a Pipe.
1"On the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th June"
2 The letter to Major Murray is printed post, 58. The other letters have not been found.
3The manuscript is somewhat mutilated and the omissions here have been supplied from the Franklin copy (P.R.O., C.O., 5.66). The Hildreth copy was perfect in this place, but the name "Farmer" is spelt "Firmer." "at Mobiel" is omitted.
4" Tawightwis "
ILLINOIS HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS
I8th I set off for the Ilinois with the Chiefs of all those Nations when by the way we met with Pondiac1 together with the Deputies of the Six Nations, Delawares & Shawanese, which accompanied Mr Frazier, & myself down the Ohio. & also Deputies with Speeches from the four Nations living in the Ilinois Country, to me & the Six Nations, Delawares & Shawanese, on which we returnd to Ouiatonon and there held another Conference, In which I settled all matters with the Ilinois Indians-Pondiac & they Agreeing2 to every thing the other Nations had done, all which they3 Confirmed by Pipes, & Belts, but told me the French had informed them that the English intended to take their Country from them, & give it to the Cherokees to settle on, & that if ever they suffered the English to take possession of their Country they would make Slaves of them, that this was the reason of their Opposing the English hitherto from taking possession of Fort Chartres, & induced them to tell Mr La Gutrie & Mr Sinnott that they would not let the English come into their Country. But being informed, Since Mr Sinnott had retired4 by the Deputies of the Six Nations Delawares & Shawanese, that every difference subsisting between them & the English was now settled, they were willing to Comply, as the other Nations their Bretheren had done and desired that their Father the King of England might not look upon his taking Possession of the Forts which the french formerly Possest as a Title for his Subjects to possess their Country,5 as they never had sold any part of it to the French, & that I might rest satisfied that whenever the English came to take possession they would receive them with open Arms.
25th I set off for
Detroit having settled every thing with these several Nations to the Westward,
& was Accompanied by several Chiefs of those Nations which were going to
Detroit to meet Colo Bradstreet agreeable to his Invitation to them
last Winter by Mr Maisonville. As I passed by the Twightwee Villages
& the Ottawawee6 Villages, on the Miamis River, they delivered
me all the English
1The phrase "by the way" is omitted.
3"all which they" omitted
4" went away "
5" to give his subjects a title to their country."
CROGHAN'S JOURNAL, AUGUST 23, 1765
Prisoners they had, & I found as I passed by those Towns,1 that several of the Indians had set off for Detroit.2
August I7th I arrived at Detroit where I found several small Tribes of Ottawas, Puttewatamies & Chipwas waiting in Consequence of Colo Bradstreets Invitation to see him. Here I met Mr De Couagne3 and Wabecomicat4 with a Deputation of Indians from Niagara, with Messages from Sir William Johnson to Pondiac & those Western Nations.
23d Colo Campbell & I had a Meeting with the Twightwees, Wawiotonans, Pyankeshas, Kickapoos and Musquattamies, when they produced the several Belts sent them by Colo Bradstreet, in consequence of which Invitation they came here.
Then5 they spoake to the Six Nations, Delawares and Shawanese on several Belts & Pipes, beging in the most abject Manner that they would forgive them for the ill Conduct of their Young Men, to take Pity on their Women & Children & grant thm peace.
They then spoake to the Colo &
me on several Pipes & Belts Expressing their great Satisfaction at a firm
& lasting Peace being settled between their Bretheren the English, &
the several Indian Nations in this Country, that they saw the heavy Clouds that
Hung over their Heads for some time past were now dispersed, and that the Sun
shone clear & bright, and that as their Father the King of England had
Conquered the French in that Country & taken into his friendship6
all the Indian Nations, they hoped for the future they would be a happy People,
& that7 they should always have reason to8 call the
English their Fathers, & beged we would take pity on their Women &
Children, & make up the difference subsisting between them and the
Shawanese, Delawares & Six Nations, and said as they, were come there in
consequence of Colo Bradstreet's invitation, & that he had not
met them, [they hoped] their Fathers would pity their necessity & give them
2Adds "to meet Colonel Bradstreet."
6" protection "
7Inserts "for the time to come" after "that."
8Omits "have reason to."
Continue to Dft. Ex. 67
Return to Docket 317 Table of Contents
Return to Ohio Valley - Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archive Menu
Return to Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology List of Publications
Return to Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology Home