THE OHIO VALLEY-GREAT LAKES ETHNOHISTORY ARCHIVES: THE
It is noted that the following work from the Miami Archives should be read and considered within the historical context in which it was composed and printed. The opinions expressed and the language used do not reflect the opinions or standards of the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, but are, rather, indicative of thought in that historical moment during which the document was published.
(July - Oct., 1764)
(Due to length divided here into two parts)
In: Collections of the New York
Historical Society for the
year 1881, pp. 1-5,
NEW-YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY
FOR THE YEAR
PUBLICATION FUND SERIES.
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY.
I. FAMILY OF MONTRÉSOR
THE Le Tresors, or Montrésors, were a very old French Hùguenot family, who derived their descent from Hùgues Le Tresor or Hugo Thesaurius, a Treasurer of the Duchy of Normandy, as well as of England, which office he and his descendants held for many generations. He accompanied William Courtehose, Duke of Normandy, in the First Crusade in 1096. His descendants held the family estates in Normandy for many generations. After the Edict of Nantes, the progenitor of the English family, James le Tresor, fled from France to England, but eventually returned to his native country and died in Paris, May 15, 1688.
His son, James Gabriel, of Thurland Hall, near Nottingham, was born in Caen, Normandy, but naturalized by Act of Parliament (12th William III). He was Major in the Twenty-first Regiment of Foot, and Lieutenant-Governor of Fort William, in Scotland, where he died January 22, 1724. He married Nanon de Hautville, daughter of Colonel de Hautville, of Normandy, but in the service of England. He commanded a troop of General Monk's Horse Grenadier Guards that conducted the seven bishops to the Tower (temp. Jac. II.). James Gabriel Montrésor, son of the above, was born in the parish of St. James, Westminster, London, in the year 1709. He entered the army, and was present at Gibraltar at the taking of that fortress in 1727. He reached the rank of Colonel, and became the second engineer in England. Early in 1757 he was ordered to America, where he
indebted for an excellent likeness in profile of General Wolfe, taken "in his camp at Montmorenci, near Quebec, September 1, 1759." * In 1760 and 1761 we find him engaged in two scouts across Maine, carrying despatches for Brigadier-General Murray, and in other services on the river St. Lawrence, and in surveying, etc. In 1763 he relieved Major Henry Gladwin and the garrison at Fort d'Etroit with provisions, when they were closely besieged by the Indian chieftain, Pontiac. In 1764 Lieutenant Montrésor was ordered to construct a series of redoubts at the Portage of Niagara before the arrival of troops under Major-General Bradstreet, on his way to make a treaty of peace with the Indians. In 1765 he was engaged in some negotiations at Albany for the removal of old government buildings and the r-erection of others, and was stationed at Fort George, in New York, during the disturbances incident upon the operation in that city of the obnoxious Stamp Act. He married in New York, March 1, 1764, Frances, only child of Thomas Tucker, Esquire, of Bermuda, a lieutenant in the army (whose head was shot off by a cannon-ball in an engagement in 1745). Frances Montrésor was born April 23, 1744, at New York, and survived her husband, dying at Rose-hill, near Sittingbourne, Kent, June 28, 1826.
From November, 1766, Lieutenant Montrésor had leave of absence for six months to proceed to England, and the winter of 1769-70 he passed in New Providence, Bermuda. In 1770 he was engage in repairing Fort Castle William at Boston, and some works at New York. In 1771 he planned and laid out the fortification at Mud Island, in the Delaware below Philadelphia. In 1772 and 1773 he was principally employed in and around Boston and New York, and in 1774 made an extensive tour to the posts on the Northern Lakes and returned to Boston, where
|Indians at the
Congress at Niagara.
|Strength of the Troops leaving Fort Erie august 19th 1764|
|Sachems and Warriors||men|
|Schahanies||14||Major Daly's Detacht||323|
|Canajoxeris||57||Major LeHunter's do||351|
|Oneydas & Tusceroras||120||17th Regiment||324|
|Senecas||178||New Jersey do||151|
|Tennessess||273||New York do||180|
|Huron & Wyandots||16||Staff||15|
|Foxes & Sacs||27||Royal Highlanders &
|women & children||150||Indians||310|
|Expence of Provisions for
the Indians only at the Congress,
Niagara July 1764
|}||£25.000 N.york Currency|
|Besides the presents||£38.000 Sterling.|
Terms of Peace between Col Bradstreet and the Delawares, Shawanese 6 Nations Indians and Hurons of Sandusky Concluded at the Cove of Peace on the South Side of Lake Erie august 12, 1764. Present 10 Indians with Strings and Belts of Wampum, all intreating for mercy and peace in the name of Four Nations.- 1st, Send in their prisoners- 2nd Liberty to build Forts all over their country and to send traders amongst all without molestation & any interruption whatever & to have Bands within the Distance of a Cannon shot round each Fort.- 3rd- If any Indian should commit any Breach contrary to their terms,
13th August 1764. Proceeded at 1/2 after 8 this morning the wind still at S. W but moderate, continued for 15 miles to a Cove at a Point of Chatacouen and there Halted for the rear till 1/2 after 2 this afternoon. Wind notwithstanding foul, set off & arrived at a fine Cove 22 miles further & encampt as it seemed to threaten to blow and night coming on. Gained this day Thirty seven miles.
14th. At 6 this morning the whole set sail for Presque Isle. Wind at S. S. West and arrived there at 9- twelve miles. Halted a short time and continued to the carrying Place, being 45 miles further and there encamped, the wind fresh & foul. Total of miles this day 16. Disembarked the loading out of all the Boats & sent them around the Peninsula. Some Boats were carried over this Carrying place which is of some 45 yards across. Encamped on the Istmas of the Presque Isle. the wind & surf being very violent in the night the whole were obliged to be hauled further on the Beach.
15th. A Council held with the Indians & Deputies from the Ennemy Indians & the Articles with the Terms of peace were Signed in Council by both parties. A Boast belonging to the 17th Regt went to pieces. The wind very strong at n. n. w. with a great swell, obliged us to remain in Camp this night. Either lost himself or deserted a Soldier from the Jersey Regt & one from the 17th Regt.
16th. This day went off Express with Col Bradstreet's dispatches to Fort Pitt, an Oneyda a Tuscarora, one Onondaga & two of the Shawanese Deputies, Containing the Articles with the Terms of Peace, from thence they are to proceed to the Plains of Scioto & meet the Troops (with the Chiefs & Prisoners) at Sandusky. At 8 o'clock the whole continued their Rout- the wind at NE with a great Swell insomuch that those Indians which travel in Birch Canoes were obliged to remain. The whole halted at La Riviere de Villejoint- 17 miles. The Indians went hunting. (page 282) Provisions issued to the Troops. The Canoes with the Indians arrived & the rest. Some of the Indians joined us by land, but were so long on their rout that we were obliged to encamp ourselves here.
17th At 6 o'clock this morning the whole proceeded. The wind at S. S. W. Seven Tuscaroras chose to remain. The weather very moderate. Wind changed at N. N. E.(? illeg.)t the whole set sail & arrived this evening at La Grand Riviere or Cayahuga, 62 miles. Encampment to wait for the Indian Canoes, one Boat of the 46 Regiment's detachment- lost. The night generally calm.
18th. The whole proceeded at 7 o'clock this morning. The weather very fine & moderate and the water smooth. The Canoes with the Indians not arrived. Detained till this hour by frivolous excuses of the Savages in which they are never wanting. At 9 o'clock the wind sprung up at N N Et the whole fleet set sail, after some time the wind rose at N W by N and blew fresh, the sea running high & the whole bore away into the River de Seguein, with a little difficulty as there is a spit off the Entrance but no bar in the mouth of it. This is a remarkable river where the upper Nations hunt & also paddle. 6 leagues up this river & on the East Side & from thence march loaded to Fort du Quesne now Fort Pitt in 6 days. Great Party of the Ottawas hunted & saved corn here last year. Gained 36 miles this day. The river Assequesix is navigable for Birch Canoes 60 miles up.
19th. Continued our Rout at Daylight. The wind moderate but rose fresh with a great swell. Signals were made for making a Harbour the whole bore away into the River de Roches- the wind at N. E. seven miles 1/2 from the last Encampment, where we left 2 Boats with Canadians light Infantry repairing. This river is not navigable far up. One Canoe with Savages lost but the people saved. Wind violent.
20th. Arrived this morning the 2 Boats with the Canadians Light Infantry & 7 Canoes of our Savages (page 283) that were left behind. The wind at N E but so violent & attended with such a great swell, the whole were obliged to remain encamped here this night.
21st. At 6 o'clock this morning orders were given for the whole to proceed. Arrived at La Riviere de la Culiere 21 miles & there halted. At 2 o'clock this afternoon continued to the Riviere de Vermillion 13 miles further, 34 miles this day. The wind ahead at W. S. Wt and very squally. Lost himself in the woods or deserted, a soldier of the Jersey Regiment.
22nd. The wind at N Wt fresh & a swell which obliged the whole to remain Encamp this day. As the savages waste and eat a greater proportion of Provisions than the Troops the Returns were Examined at 258 Rations per diem, remaining 30 days Pork & 37 of Bread from this day. This night set off an English & Canadian officer with some savages to the Hurons of Sandusky that Col Bradstreet had granted them a peace at their earnest request, that they were to bring their Prisoners & meet him with their Chiefs at Sandusky by the middle of Septr to ratify the Treaty.
23rd. Wind at S. S. W the whole continued their Rout. At Dawn of day made a small Halt to a point on the main to the Southward of 12 miles Island for Manitou Chief of the Ottawas & the Great War Chief of the Nation to make Peace & here embarked on board and continued our Rout to l'ance de la petite Isle or Manitou's Cove from thence the Chiefs detached a Canoe to the Miamis to acquaint Wassing Chief of the Jibbeways & also to the Ottawas of the terms of peace agreed on between them and us. 44 miles this day.
24th. Wind at S. Wt at 6 o'clock this morning the whole proceeded from Manitous Cove or L'ance de la petite Isle & arrived at la Pointe au Cédra 34 1/2 miles and encamped in order to wait for the chiefs of the Savages of the Miamis & some other Ottawas chiefs that inhabit this river. A strong camp, the Lake in the Rear & an impassable swamp in its Front. Offered my service to Colonel Bradstreet to proceed (page 284) with a small party of Indians (if thought requisite & necessary) into the Illinois Country to Execute his Orders & to return to New York by the way of the River Mississippi.
25th. A Council held between Col Bradstreet & the chief of the several Indian nations with us. No chiefs arriving from the Miamis to this appointed place & to the appointed time the whole embarked this afternoon to attack the ennemy, but we had not proceeded far before we discovered 2 or 3 Canoes with the Indian chiefs from that place where they left Pondiac upon which the whole returned to the former encampment & encampt as before. The water rose this night ___ (?) feet perpendicular, a hard gale blowing at NE which obliged the whole to unload & haul up all their boats from the surf. The heat this day was so intense that the Centries were ordered to be posted under the Shade as some of them fainted, the whole encampment being situated on a sandy beach. A council was held this Evening wit the Ottawas & Jibbeways Chiefs but as nothing could be concluded for the present for want of other chiefs 'twas deferred until our arrival at Detroit.
26th. The Miamis Indians agreed to let pass an Officer & some of our Indians to the Illinois & to leave Hostages for their safe return. The Canawages & all the other nations with us sent Belts to the several nations of Indians in that Country that if they did not make peace as they did they would take up the Hatchet against them next Spring. This day Capt Morris of the17 Regt & a party of our friendly Indians set off for the Illinois by the way of the Miamis & from thence after administering the Oath to the Inhabitants & making the necessary remarks &c & thoroughly fulfilling his Orders there, he is to proceed to New York by the way of the Mississippi. The whole continued their rout, leaving behind 4 Tuscaroras Chiefs & arrived at La Riviere aux Raisins- 10 3/4 Miles this day.
27th. Wind at S. W. The whole of the Troops arrived this day at Detroit being the 19th day from Fort
Peace proposed, concluded on & ratified on the present occasion. Pondiac declined appearing here, till his pardon should be granted. Continued sitting the General Court Martial on a Prisoner tried for Rebellion. Wind at E. N. Et. The weather on the change, the season commencing airish and chilly, particularly the mornings. This day Pondiac was forgiven in council, who is at present two days march above the castle on the Miamis River called la Roche de But with a party of 60 more savages.
6th. The Ottawas & Jibbeways incapable of attending the Council to sign the Articles of Peace agreed on, through Excess of liquor. Wind at N Et. The Camp pretty healthy in general. Remarked that of the late Garrison that was relieved only one man died for 4 years. Arrived this evening Ninnevah & 58 young Warriors from the Powtawattamies; also Pondiac's own Band of Ottawas. Came to an anchor below the Isle aux Dindes the Sloop & two Schooners from Niagara loaded with 1100 Barrels of Provisions. Parties employed in hawling up the Timber rafted down from the Fort.
7th. This morning the Treaty of Peace was ratified in Council signed & sealed. Came down from Isle au Cochon Colonel Putnam and the party of Provincials that have been employed there cutting of Timber for carrying on the works here. Proposed by Col Bradstreet for Officers to apply for Grants of Lands here, for the advantage of the Crown & this new Colony. For either the Government must dispossess the present Inhabitants of their lands & entirely remove them from hence or support this feeble colony with a numerous body of English sufficient to cultivate the vacant lands in this streight & subordinate the savages who are powerful in this neighbourhood. Wind at N Et. Artificers continued as before. Arrived the Dispatches from on board the vessels. Letters received from Cap Morris dated from les Praries des Mascoutins.
8th. Sent to the Piniere above Lake St Clair to cut
Ducks, Teal, Plovers Pidgeons &c, observed during this day's rout. The rear of our Encampmt protected by drowned & almost impassable swamps. The soil very rich and well timbered. Rout this day esteemed 14 leagues. At 10 o'clock this night a hard gale of wind rose at N Et which affected the boats. Orders were given to man them in order to proceed round the point but encreasing with violence they were countermanded and the Boats all hawled up. Two Indians seen on horseback, 'tis observed the savages possess in these parts including the Shawanese about 6000 Horses.
16th. Wind still continueing to blow hard at N Et with a great sea. Several of our Indians went a hunting. The lands extremely fine interspersed here and there with intervals of meadow producing chiefly Folle avoine a kind of Oats which the Indians make bread of. At 2 o'clock this afternoon the wind lulling & the water some what asswaged, the whole proceeded (after firing 3 Cannon for to call in the Hunters) & arrived late at la Presqu'Isle, a gravelly beach & some what steep, where we encamped & met Manitou & some of the Ottawas Chiefs there. Accounts received there that this night there was to arrive at the Hurons village all on horseback 400 Delawares 500 Shawanese, which with the 200 Hurons of the village here makes 1100 Strong, a number sufficient to be attended to when compared with our present numbers. A body of men picked out from all the Troops for an occasional stroke.
17th. The wind at S Et with a swell, rather flowing fresh, however the whole proceeded at 7 o'clock in order to reach the Lake of Sandusky, the wind & waves rising we put back before the wind & arrived at our former Encampment. One of our vessels discovered at anchor in the Traverse. No possibility of continueing our rout, this day. Accounts arrived that the Delawares & Shawanese are assembled at Sandusky where the old Fort stood, in order to treat (page 294) with us for Peace agreeable to their appointment. Greatest part of the Indians went out a hunting. Continued sketching the coast and part of the Islands with the Bearings and Distances.
18th. The whole proceeded. The wind at S. W blowing very hard with a swell. Halted at the western most Point of Sandusky Lake and blowing a Gale of wind but lulling a little. About 2 o'clock Entered Sandusky Lake & arrived in the afternoon where our old Fort stood that the Indians burnt last year, a bad place for the Boats. The whole set sail & arrived at Thistle Creek about one mile & 3/4 to the Eastward of it but the water failing returned & encamped 1/2 a mile to the westward of the old Fort. A good clay beach. Found at the old Fort the Officer of the 80th sent with Provisions from Detroit. Heavy rains. The Delawares, Shawanese, & other nations not being arrived, seven more days were granted.
19th. Came in an Express. A Delaware, some Shawanese
& an Indian from Scioto to acquaint us that their chiefs
& Prisoners were on their march to meet us here. A Council
held this day wherein 'twas fully explained that no dependance
was made on the Belt sent, that the Delawares in particular had
forfeited their word long since. And Ottawa chief in the Council
upbraided the Shawanese and Delawares for sending him a belt in
the Spring to continue the war against the English with the
utmost vigour. Wind at N E. The Channel of Sandusky was sounded
& found sufficient water for the vessels now on the Lake to
enter. Arrived the Sachem Manitou and the great War Chief of the
Ottawas with 12 more young warriors to attend the General Council
to be held here. Near 1300 lbs weight of our Flour on a survey
found damaged owing to the wet weather we have had lately.
Remark- that the water rises & falls upwards of 2 feet
perpendicular, the difference between the winds blowing in &
out of this Lake, from the N E & S W quarter. The Iroquois
sent to Fort Pitt from Presque-
* This was afterward mezzotinted and published, July 30, 1783, by B. Killingbeck, Dover Street, London.
Return to TOC, p. 17
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