THE OHIO VALLEY-GREAT LAKES ETHNOHISTORY
ARCHIVES: THE MIAMI COLLECTION
It is noted that the following work from the Miami Archives should be read and considered within the historical context in which it was composed and printed. The opinions expressed and the language used do not reflect the opinions or standards of the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, but are, rather, indicative of thought in that historical moment during which the document was published.
(July - Oct., 1764)
(Due to length for the
year 1881, pp. 1-5,
275-345. divided here into two parts)
In: Collections of the New York
(page 295) Isle returned. Remark. The Officer of the 80th had already dispatched one of our Indians to hasten the Chiefs of the Nations expected.
20th. As the Nations expected to ratify the Treaty propose taking the Rout of the upper village of the Huron 60 miles from the first Rapids on the River of Sandusky the whole embarked & proceeded and encamped, one mile below the Rapids in order to meet them one day sooner and also to be so much the nearer to attack their villages on the Ohio should they to comply with every article alluded in the Treaty of Peace. This Days rout 30 Miles. Wind at S. W.t very heavy rains. The country covered with Game. The land extremely rich, interspersed near the Borders of the Rivers and Lake with large Tracts of Meadow. This camp very advantageously situated on a rising Ground and open woods as per Draught. The most of this River from the Entrance to the Rapids being about 18 miles is 5 Fathoms Water the first six miles up Meadow, the rest woods, are part with another 80 yards Broad. The Evening & Morning Gun ordered to be fired with the Camp duties &c as before. A considerable difference observed in the climate becoming more moderate. One of the Couriers a Delaware being suspected of returning before the arrival of his chiefs, was secured by the Oneydas.
21st. The quarter guards of the Several Battalions & Detachments defended by Fleches & Redoubts with 6 light field 6 Pounders in the Intervals. The Indians from the neighbouring village at the Rapids which for the most part is abandoned this Spring brought in the produced of their settlement chiefly consisting of melons Squashes & Indian Corn to traffick with the Troops for Salt, Rum &c. Arrived an Express from Miamis Fort not being permitted to proceed any further by the Miamis. The Warriors in that River assembled 700 strong. when he was at the Fort 15 Shawanese and Delawares arrived there with 14 Belts to the several Nations to carry on the war against the English as (page 296) well as themselves having vowed Enmity to us al long as the sun should shine, as per Journal from Captain Morris* wherein is set forth the several escapes he had of being scalped, of the severe treatment he met with from the Miamis having been at times bound up in his sash, tied to a tree, naked pillaged of all his effects & dragged through the River & the necessity he was under in concealing himself in different places (by the advice and protection of Pondiac's nephew) to prevent his being scalped: and his escape at last through the woods on horseback with a Frenchman for his Guide. The 14 Indians of the 6 Nations, his escort gave him no assistance being struck with a Panick. A Council was held this night between Col Bradstreet and the Chiefs of several Nations, now encamped with us acquainting them with the above accounts, Desiring to hear their Sentiments with regard to them to-morrow in Council. The Indians council'd together the chief of the night. The Schooner with Materials &c discovered at anchor near the entrance of Lake Sandusky. Wind at SW. Remarkable heavy rain fell & continued most of this night. Arrived from the Upper Huron village of Sandusky 60 miles from hence accounts that the chiefs of that nation were preparing to come down & ratify the Peace made with us.
22nd. Wind Strong at West. An Express was dispatched to Detroit in a Canoe. A Council held this afternoon between Colonel Bradstreet and several friendly Indian Chiefs. The result that 3 Indians should be dispatched to see if the Delawares & Shawanese were on their Rout, if they were to hasten them. On examining the Provisions found sufficient but for 20 days for the Troops. I went to the Huron Village and took a sketch and Bearings of that advantageous (page 297) and beautiful situation and the meanderings of the River. Remarked that the Left of our Encampment is contiguous to the remains of an old Fort where the Delawares & some of the Western Indians took Post to shelter themselves against the Iroquois near 100 years ago- this constructed in the former of a circle 300 yards in circumference, one half defended by the River and a remarkable Hollow way or Gully which covers the left and part of the Front of our present encampment. The works thrown up for the Defence of the Camp completed by the Respective corps that were to occupy them.
23rd. Wet weather, wind at N Et no accounts as yet arrived from the Chiefs of the Nations expected. Orders for the Troops to receive 2 days provisions & to cook it. The Gun to fire at 4 o'clock in the morning at which time the Tents are to be struck & the whole to Embark & proceed at the Beating of the General, a very necessary movement as affairs do not wear the best appearance from the delay of our Ennemies who were to assemble to fulfill and ratify the articles of the Peace agreed on and for near 12 miles of this river is one entire Defile. Arrived accounts that the Schooner was drove back to la Petite Isle. very heavy rains.
24th. The whole returned down the River. Wind at S. Wt. Entered the Lake or rather the Bay of Sandusky and Continued on it till we arrived 3/4 of a mile above where the French Fort stood on the carrying Place between the Lakes Sandusky and Erie, where we Encamped. A working Party set to work immediately in clearing the Ground to construct a Fort on. Made the Design, marked out the work and began on cutting the Trenches and felling Timber for Stockades &c Arrived account that the Schooner was near la petite Isle at anchor. Very violent Flashes of lightning & claps of Thunder. Indians hunted, some Deer Killed. Prodigous heavy Showers. Rowed this day to the present Encampment Seven Leagues. Great want of Tolls and almost every kind of materials for (page 298) carrying on the Fort. Left behind at our Encampment about 80 of our own Indians under pretence of waiting for the arrival of our Ennymies Chiefs, rather they were displeased at this sudden manouvre and Provisions left with them.
25th. This morning at daylight a long boat was dispatched to the Schooner with letters for Detroit where she is immediately to proceed after delivering into the Boat the materials &c belonging to the Engineers for carrying on the Fort. Arrived a Canoe from up the River of Sandusky with advices that some of the Hurons of the Upper Villages had arrived at the lower one and that some of the Delawares and Shawanese had been there on their way to us, but that the courier dispatched by the Officer of the 80th had sent them back for their Prisoners. Two Ottawas Chiefs arrived in our Camp on Horseback from Les Prairies des Mascoutins up the river des Mis or Miamis confirming the accounts transmitted by the officer of the 17th to Col Bradstreet, also that the Miamis, Quicapous, Mascoutins and Powtowattomies of St Joseph had danced the War dance, having accepted the Belts sent by the Delawares, Shawanese and Senecas before the return of the 2 Miamis chiefs that signed the articles of Peace made with Col Bradstreet at Detroit. Continued the working parties on the Front. Parties sent a fishing with Seines with some success. Indians returned from this days hunt with Deer. Wind at S. W. Weather wet at 10 o'clock this night. Returned the Long boat that was dispatched this morning which brought the materials sent for. Arrived at the same time an Express from General Gage to Col Bradstreet by the way of Niagara by an officer of the 46th Regt who took the side of Lake Erie and fortunately fell in with the Long boat sent to the vessel from this Camp. Contents of that Dispatch from the Commr in Chief. The Disapprobation of the Peace concluded with the Delawares, Shawanese, Savages of Scioto Plains and Hurons of Sandusky notwith- (page 299) standing the Orders "make Peace with those Savages who should offer it" and that Extraordinary Peace granted to the Senecas and that Branch of them called the Jennesees at Niagara in August after that recent and most barbarous stroke Septr 1763 on the Niagara carrying place without the least provocation together with their being the occasion of this present rupture with the Savages, Containing also the absolute necessity of 12 of the Delawares and Shawanese to be delivered up to be put to Death and advice of Col Bouquet being on his march against the Ohio Indians by the way of Fort Pitt, which he was to leave the 1st of October. The Schooner by order set off for Detroit this night for provisions for the Troops here from where she laid at anchor. Remark- Monsieur La Cla Commissionaire de la Companie des Indes now provides many tribes even of our Savages from the Island of Orleans with merchandize, Liquor, Arms & Ammunition very near at Par at least with very little profit 'tis reported by Order of the Court of France to gain over the Savages to their Interest and this year sent several canoes with ammunition &c to La Baye St Josephs &c and to give credit to them, that have not the wherewithal.
26th. Working Parties continue in constructing the Intended Fort. Wind at S. Wt. Early this morning was dispatched two long Boats to the Lower Huron village near our last Encamp arrived a canoe with 2 Ottawas from the Lower Huron village with accounts that the Huron of the Upper Village with the Prisoners were arrived there & that we might expect them to morrow. Weather very sultry, with so ment on the River of Sandusky to immediately bring back our Indians we left there. At one o'clock this afternoon me showers of rain. Arrived Manitou Chief Sachem of the Ottawas with part of his Band. Remark.- The Delawares and Shawanese were prepared for us in June and had engaged a spot of Ground in the Illinois country in case they should have been repulsed by us. (page 300) This morning about 11 o'clock I received orders to discontinue the Works, the several parties were dismissed accordingly. Arrived a Birch Canoe with Hurons informing us that 40 Warriors and Chiefs exclusive of Women were on the opposite side of the Lake at the old Village on the River Poisson d'ontario that they had brought some prisoners down with them belonging to their Band or Party. Provisions were ordered for the whole and sent them in the same canoe. That they do not expect either the Delawares or Shawanese as they said themselves 'twas too late in the season and that they could not collect their chiefs. Arrived also 2 canoes of Caenawagas with accounts of the arrival of the Hurons. That a party of them arrived the evening of the Day we decamped from thence, that we need not expect the Delawares & Shawanese as their chiefs were gone to the Illinois. Remark. Already known. That about 10 of the Caenawagas belonging to our army had deserted us in order to war against the Flat Heads. A return demanded from the Commanding Officer of the Number of men capable of carrying 30 days Provisions to march near 200 miles and return- Given in Numbers-. Extraordinary Thunder & Lightning this night with heavy rain. By the Intelligence of a Jibbeway arrived this day who had been lately from the Shawanese Castles (but lately from the River de Miamis) that he did not understand from them the least intention they had of making Peace.
27th. Wind at N. East, the weather heavy. This morning a Council of Warriors held at Head Quarters, present the Commanding officers of Corps, with regard to an attempt being immediately made on the castles of the Delawares & Shawanese Situated on the Plains of Scioto and chiefly on the west side of that River. The Guides were examined with regard to the Geography of the Country and upon duly enquiring into every particular circumstance relative to such an undertaking they were unanimously agreed to attempt it
Regt and Number of men at the Fort du Lac. This day was held a General Court Marital.
2nd October 1674. A council held with the Hurons of Sandusky. Detacht of 250 men commanded by a field officer & officers in proportion to unload & Ballast the 2 vessels which are to proceed directly after for Fort Erie for Provisions for Detroit. This day 70 Sick officers & men were sent to Niagara on board the vessels. Twelve Indians returning home from yesterdays hunt with 14 deer, Turkies, Geese, Ducks &c. Result of the Day's Council with the Hurons, rejected the Belts & advised them to reflect till tomorrow for words alone were not sufficient without further proofs of their sincerity. Wind at Et. Quarter Guards of the Camp covered with Breastworks and surrounded with Abbatis.
3rd. Wind still at East. Came in an Express from the Vessels that they were unloaded & ready to sail. Arrived Assarrigoa, Chief of the Caenawagas who did not proceed further than the Upper Huron Castle as Expresses constantly came in there with accounts that the Troops under the Command of Colonel Bouquet were on their march & by the last courier but about 40 miles from a Delaware Town. A council held this Day wherein the chiefs of the 6 Nations gave the Hurons a Belt as brethren now serving under the same King. A Court of Enquiry held to enquire into the Treatment Capt Morris of the 17th met with on the Miamis river from Thomas King an Oneyda Chief. One of his escort just arrived from thence which court I attended and took the minutes of. This night the 6 Nations agreed to take up the Hatchet immediately against the Delawares & Shawanese. Understood that the 6 Nations had they Canoes would have returned home long since being too far and too late to proceed home by land. Four hundred Indians now encamped with us of different nations & tribes, at one ration & 1/2 each. Indians successful in their Hunting. Died & was buried one of the warriors of the 6 Nations.
4th. Six nations doubtful whether they would take up the Hatchet against the Delawares & Shawanese. A Party proposed to act against them consisting chiefly of Regulars to consist of 200 men besides Indians and to proceed at 12 o'clock this night. Countermanded, as the 6 nations were wavering. A Detroit Huron and some Jibbeways took up the Hatchet against our Ennemies and sung the War Dance daring the 6 Nations to follow them. This evening returned the Major and his Detachment from unloading the vessels, brought with them this Trip 140 Barrels of Provisions, some of the Flour damaged. wet weather, winds variable. This night a Gale of wind rose at E.S.Et with a swell, obliged to hawl up our Boat. Reason the Chief of the 6 Nations gave for not immediately taking up the Hatchet was, as they had made peace with the upper Nations they must draw blood first and show them the Example.
5th A Long boat lost by last nights storm. This morning went a Boat off with a party of Hurons of Sandusky for them to remove their effects and abandon their settlement in order to join the Hurons of Detroit. At the same time set off a Detachment in 2 long Boats to attack some straggling Indians. Orders sent for the Sloop to set sail. A Canoe dispatched Express to Detroit for a party of these Indians to strike immediately against the Shawanese & Delawares. A Council held this afternoon with the 6 Nations, Col Bradstreet present, wherein they refused to strike the Delawares & Shawanese, particularly the latter, saying they were sprung from Onandaga. The Camp falling sickly very fast. Wind at NE & heavy weather, the Breeze rather fresh. Remark- from good intelligence, why the Indians more numerous last Spring was on account of 15400 Jibbeways having gone to war against the Sioux.
6th. went off a Captain of the 17th with Col Bradstreet's Dispatches to the Commander in Chief. Set Sail 6 Boats with a Captain & 400 men Light Infan-
turned without meeting them. The General Court Martial dissolved. Indians very successful in their hunting. Several men yet swelled up prodigously both by touching & burning the poison Vine.
10th. A long Boat sent off at Daylight this morning to the river Poisson D'or to discover the out scout which returned without seeing them. Wind at N. West and hot weather. Two Boats sent out to Discover the return of the Scout, that from the Bottom of the Lake returned this night without perceiving any one, as also the one sent to where the Fort stood. 6 Caenawagas missing. Answer from the chiefs that they were gone to see their friends at the Plains of Scioto and so to war against the Flat heads. A Council held by desire of the 6 nations. I began protracting the Draught of the South Coast of Lake Erie to a scale of 2 miles to an inch with the Rout, Encampment &c &c.
11th. Boats went to discover the Scout. This day returned unsuccessfull. This afternoon a Boat was dispatched to the Westward of River Poisson dor and brought over an Indian officer & 4 Indians of the Scout with a Flathead an adopted Indian of Onandaga belonging to this Encampment, which they brought Prisoner suspecting he had carried intelligence to at Delaware settlement, The scout went to cut off. This Express brought account that the party was on their Return the cabins being abandoned, they met 2 Hurons on Horseback who acquainted them that the Delawares had run off 4 days, having received advices from the 6 Nations encamped now with us of our Design. The water of this Lake fallen one foot perpendicular. Wind fresh at N. W. Survey of the Provisions finished.
12th. A smart white frost this morning. An armed long boat dispatched for to receive the party where the old Fort Stood expected in this day. Strength of our troops present 1400 besides 200 Indians. The Boat returned with the Scouting Party on board-
An armed long boat sent to the carrying place to discover the arrival of the Remainder of the Indian Warriors from Detroit. Arrived a canoe with Tobacco &c from the Illinois & lastly from Detroit, to dispose off to the Troops. Great quantities of Game of almost every kind brought in. Camp not extraordinary healthy, subject chiefly to fluxes, some agues, each attended with Fevers. An Indian confirmed this day, what I before remarked in this Journal with regard to the designs of the Ennemy who was present when the plot was laid which was as follows- That on our arrival at Sandusky, that 300 picked men should promiscuously join us in order to treat with us at Sandusky, each armed with either Tomahawk or scalping knife, that they should encamp on our right & left according to our usual custom of encamping Indians when with us- that they were to dance every night, that 400 others armed with spears were to be near at hand & when they should find us least on our guard they were to Tomahawk us, seconded by those without. Council held this day with the 6 nations & upper Nations wherein matters were explained by Colonel Bradstreet with regard to the present situation of affairs between us & the Delawares & Shawanese & the little or no dependance to be put in their treaties, of their having broke their Peace by scalping & taking prisoners off of our Frontiers, since they had concluded Peace with us Augt 12th 1764. Arrived a woman and a Girl, prisoners, that had ran away from the Shawanese in 6 days, they alleged that 200 Prisoners belonging to us, were in one of the Shawanese Towns now collected, they were almost famished. Compleated my plans of the South Side of Lake Erie as far as the mouth of the Lake of Sandusky. Arrived some of our own Indians from the Hunt. Remarks- That 'tis plainly discovered, the 6 Nations are at the Bottom of this war, even the faithful Thomas King an Oneyda Chief is now in possession of a French Flag given him by the Miamis when he was t'other day there which account he never asserted (page 309) in the Deposition he gave, accompanied with a large carrot of Tobacco, a piece of which each nation chief was to smoke, that this Flag denoted an early arrival of 60 or 70 Boats with French Troops expected by the way of the Mississippi- that it should be a protection to them to signify their Encampment whenever it should be thought Expedient to attempt the massacre of our Army. That the Senecas have declared to the Delawares & Shawanese to support themselves this Campaign- that notwithstanding the Peace they had concluded with us at Niagara they would give us a blow when & where we least expect it - that the Delawares & Shawanese must mark out a spot amongst them to retire to in the Spring, as possibly they might be over come by our numbers. Observation- that Thomas King on his arrival here desired the Chiefs of the 6 Nations would accept & deliver the Flag, delivered him by Monsieur St Vincent, to Col Bradstreet, which they declined. Remark. This day Monsieur Maisonville declared that on leaving the Illinois a few days since, about 1200 Savages were assembled at the Miamis River in order to give us Battle which they proposed at La Roche de But where commences the Rapids, 'twas agreed on in the following manner (if they could not succeed by Treachery) to fall on us when we should be least on our Guard, to wait, if not, until we disembarked & marched on to the village where Pondiac chiefly resides, supposing we should leave about 400 men to cover the Boats Provisions &c- then to attack & to destroy the Boats & soe by distress &c to overcome the main body. That 300 more were daily expected to join them- that had any accident befallen our army to prevent their reaching Detroit (as so extensive navigation is hazardous for so many Boats together ) they proposed surprizing that Post.
15th. Two Hurons arrived- that their villages were removing according to agreement to Riviere de Loutre. Arrived a party of Detroit Indians consisting of 9 to
ing place in order to perpetrate (by the assistance of a large body of the Ennemy) their black design in the Massacre of our Troops when least on our Guard. From the apparent good Disposition of the Savages of the Upper nation provided they are properly treated with at Detroit they will in every respect answer our purpose they having naturally an aversion to the Delawares & Shawanese and even 1/4 of the Expence of this campaign in this district only would be (properly managed in Presents) sufficient to extirpate the whole race of our present savage ennemies.
October 17th 1764. The Chiefs of the 6 Nations being sent to for 2 Men to carry Dispatches to Fort Pitt, refused saying their people were all sick having 100 and odd now encamped with an imperfect health. a council held this morning with the Party now ready to proceed. Wind at S. W. wet weather. At One o'clock this afternoon was dispatched two Birch Canoes of Caenawagas Indians under the Direction of an Indian Officer of the Canadians Total 25 to attack the Delawares. Arrived 2 Hurons from the Upper Wiandot Village, upon their arrival in our village in our Camp the 6 Nations immediately spread a report that an Express had arrived in the Wiandot Village that Co Bouquet had made peace with the Delawares & Shawanese in order to prevent the young warriors of the upper nations to proceed and to recall the Coenawagas set off this morning on a scalping party. An armed long Boat dispatched to the carrying place to discover the 15 Powtawattamies under the Direction of a French Partisan from Detroit to join this Party, returned without finding them. Remark. That 'tis evidently the Interest of the 6 Nations to have the war Continued.
18th. This morning at 1/2 past 8 o'clock the whole decamped & embark'd for Niagara consisting of 1400 men besides 150 Indians- 59 Long Boats, one Barge & 9 Birch Canoes. Wind at S. S. W. and fresh. At 10 o'clock was join'd by the Detach of Light Infan- (page 312) try that set off the 15th at night. Continued this whole day on Lake Erie passed by the Rivers Huron, Vermillion and Culiere and Encamped on a Sandy Beach to the Westward one mile off the Riviere au Roche a little after dark sometime after all the Boats except one had arrived being about 8 o'clock the weather moderate rather calm a surf set in on this Beach from the NW. and that so suddenly as to entirely perish 25 of our long Boats or Galleys, damaging a great quantity of our ammunition and provisions and washing away great part of our baggage. Let at our last Encampment the young warriors of the Hurons Ottawas, and Jibbeways of Detroit who were on the point of proceeding against the Ennemy in 3 parties, one against the Delawares and two against the Shawanese which makes 4 parties from our Troops now intended immediately to strike on the ennemy. During our Distress our Savages never offered us the least assistance. Remark this unfortunate accident must be imputed to the entire negligence of the Troops.
19th. A fall of slight snow and sleet mixed. Returns given in of the Number of Boats fit for service and repairable; also of the Provisions. Offered my services this morning to Col Bradstreet to command and conduct a party to Fort Pitt as provisions was so scarce. The rout by the Portage from the River de Seguein. Wind at N. W & a heavy surf. The Troops employed in repairing the remainder of their Boats. The Boat missing last Night arrived this morning & immediately proceeded into River de Roches. Parties sent to collect Baggage Provisions &c along shore. At 12 o'clock this night we buried our guns 6 Light Brass 6 Pounders the Boats being rendered incapable of carrying them. This afternoon an Indian Officer, 2 White men & 3 Savages were detached Express to Fort Erie in a Birch Canoe with orders for 2 Batteaux loaded & with Provisions to meet us as son as possible.
20th- 115 of our Savages continue their Rout this
(page 345- Jan. 1766)
with Colonel Bradstreet against the Delawares & Shawanese in 1764.
6th. I received letters from Col Bradstreet mentioning more conspiracies intended by Pondiac, Wassong and 3 other chiefs all now at the Congress at the Miamies principally intended against D'Etroit.
7th. Waited on the Commr in Chief & shewed him my Brouillon that he might see the Progress I had made on the Survey; also presented him with my draught of the South Side of Lake Erie. I received General Gage's thanks for the above. Arrived the Polly Capt Havilland from London. Recd letters from Colonel James Montresor & enclosed a copy signed & sealed of his Majesty's Royal Mandamus for 10,000 acres of land to be granted to Col Montresor in this Province and directed the Governor or Commander in Chief of this Province for the Execution of the above order. Shewed the Commr in Chief some bills from Col Bradstreet due on the Expedition of 1764 which he agreed should be paid on Capt Gordons Engineer arrival from Philadelphia. Continued on my Survey Sub Rosa as observations might endanger ones house and effects if not ones life. A Stagnation of almost all business and every Kind of merchandize uncommonly exorbitant. Continued on my Survey & drawing still the Brouillon.
11th. At two this morning a fire broke out in this city, but by the timely assistance of the Inhabitance with their Engines & fire Buckets 'twas speedily Extinguish'd- they being here uncommonly active and dexterous in that particular. Advertisements placarded throughout of the General approbation from the Sons of Liberty to those son that Burnt the Stamps the other night. Received advice of the Riots at Albany by the Sons of Liberty there.
13th. This morning I presented and delivered to Sir Harry Moore,
Colonel Montresor's Mandamus for the 10,000 acres of Land in this Province, as
* Thomas Morris was a Lieutenant in the Seventeenth, or Forbes' Regiment, in 1755. He was at the reduction of Louisbourg in 1758, and with General Amherst at Lakes George and Champlain in 1759. In 1761 he was promoted to a Captaincy. See Parkman's Conspiracy of Pontiac for Morris' narrative among the Indians. He left the army in 1775.
Return to TOC, p. 17
Continue to next part of Miami Collection
[return to Miami Collection Menu]
[return to Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology List of Publications]
[return to Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology Home]
Last updated: 25
Copyright 1996, Glenn Black Laboratory of Archaeology and The Trustees of Indiana University