THE OHIO VALLEY-GREAT LAKES ETHNOHISTORY
ARCHIVES: THE MIAMI COLLECTION
It is noted that the following work from the Miami Archives should be read and considered within the historical context in which it was composed and printed. The opinions expressed and the language used do not reflect the opinions or standards of the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, but are, rather, indicative of thought in that historical moment during which the document was published.
(Detroit, Sept. 7-10, 1764)
As "Transactions of a Congress (held with the Chiefs of the Ottawa and Chippewa Nations, with several others who are hereafter mentioned), (1764), In: (Enclosed in Bradstreet to Gage, Sep. 12, 1764), Gage Papers, American Series, William L. Clements Library and In: The Papers of Sir William Johnson, vol. 4, pp. 526-533.
 in The Papers of Sir William Johnson filled in below from the other source for this document, the Gage Papers.
TO WILLIAM EYRE ETC.
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 235, are listed the following papers which were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 6th to Lieutenant Colonel William Eyre about letters to the lords of trade and the Earl of Halifax, which he desires Eyre to take charge of provided he can obtain immediate leave to go home; one of the 6th from Daniel Claus, Montreal, in behalf of a trader who suffered by Indian depredations at Michilim's and about intended intrusions by (Murray's) government on Johnson's department and the creation of employment's for "Calidonian Gentry," also Catholic activity in Canada, and his impatience to return to Fort Johnson; one of the 7th from Hugh Fraser, Albany, announcing that he is coming to put himself under Sir William's protection, has married, and hopes to engage in the linen industry.
CONGRESS WITH THE WESTERN NATIONS
Detroit, Sept [7-10] 1764
[Transactions of a Congress held with the Chiefs of the Ottawaws and Chippewaw Nations, with several others who are hereafter mentioned.]
Wassong Chief of the Chippewas1
What I am going to say is in the [name of my self Attawatky] and all the young Warriors of the Ottawas and Ch[ippewas, we do not] mean to give Offence, and this String of Wampum [is to open your Ears,] and we expect to be heard patiently, we are extreamly [find our]selves so well received, and hope you will give us [Peace, In the name] of the two Nations of Ottawaws and Chippewas [We thank you for] having compassion on Ourselves our Wives and Families.
Gave a String of Wampum repeating their thanks. Wassong then spoke on a Green Belt.
Brother I beg you would hearken to Wassong, Ottawaky, Shamindawa, Outawang, Cuttawang, Apockys & Abbetts. Last year God forsook us, God has now opened our Eyes, and we desire to be heard. Tis Gods will our hearts are altered, 'twas Gods will you had such fine Weather to come to us, It is (page 527) Gods will also that there shall be Peace and tranquility all over the face of the Earth and of the Waters, Every thing that was done last year bad, was done by the Old Warriors without cause We have therefore turned them on one side, the young Warriors are determined to Settle every thing themselves, and prevent for the future any mischief that might be intended, the Young Warriors as well as the Old Sachems thank you and are glad to see the good disposition you are in. Now the Young people have the direction of Affairs, they hope every thing may be Settled peaceably and that they may be permitted to shake hands with you and your Officers as Brothers.
This day the young Chiefs break all their old Chiefs, they shall never be Allowed to Act, but attention will be paid to what they say,
You have forgiven us, but our Offences are so great, we must again ask it in the Name of our Wives & Children, we also pray that all your Troops will have compassion on them and us, and hope they will remove any ill opinion you may have of them and us And we thank the Great King, for allowing you to forgive us and Grant us peace- we say this not in our Name alone, but in the Name of all the Inhabitants round this Country.
Wassong then spake on a String of purple and white Wampum painted Green and Blue. Brother, Attend, In the Name of the Miamis I speak. They thank God for opening their [eyes th]ey will use their Utmost Endeavours to restore Tranquility 'Tis Gods Will there shall be peace all o[ver ] of the Earth and you shall hear nothing ill of them they thank you and are Extreamly glad to [hear by] the people you sent that you will grant them Peace, on their Return the Village will be Overjoyed as they [were at] the Peace of the Shawanese &c &c &c &c
They once more thank God for opening their Eyes, so soon as they get home Everything will be Established on the Antient footing of Peace and friendship- That on the whole their (page 528) Sentiments are the same as the Ottawas and Chippewas and hope that your Army will throw aside all resentment against them, and that they may be Allowed to shake hands as Brothers, Again they ask for peace in the Name of their Wives and Children.
Gave the String
Then Shamindawa spoke
When Captain Morris2 arrived at the Miamis Pondiac spoke to him on a Belt of Wampum, saying hie was hea[rti]ly Ashamed of what had happened, and if he could be forgiven he would be very thankfull; and do all the Service in his power to the English, and that it gave him great pleasure to find [he] was going on a Business that would give Peace and Quietness to the Inhabitants of the Earth, that he would pray for his Success and remain Quiet himself, and that when Captain Morris returns, should he succeed he will thank God for it and hopes to be forgiven.
[Colo Bradstreets Answer.-]
[The ingenuous Confession of your Folly last year without any Provoction from the English Affords me pleasure, as] [it gives me reason to believe ] that your request for Mercy [and forgiveness ] hearts. I shall take compassion on your [Distress, and will] grant you peace on the following terms:
First. Yourselves and the Nations you represent [must Acknowled]ge that you are the Subjects and Children of [His Majesty] George the third of Great Brittain France and [Ireland King] Defender of the faith, &c &c &c and that he has [the sole right of] of Sovereignty Over all and every part of this Coun[try in as] full and as ample a manner as in any part of his [other] Dominions whatever.
Second. If any Nation or Tribe of Indians herein comprehended dare Violate this peace and disturb the (page 529) publick tranquility the others shall look on themselves bound to make War upon the Offenders Seperately or joyntly with the English and their Allies, at all times when they shall be Commanded by his Majesty his General or Officer appointed for that purpose and reduce to reason the Offenders or extirpate them and that you will when ever commanded take up Arms and joyn his Majesty's Troops or other his Subjects against any of his Ennemies whatever and use your utmost endeavours to execute the Orders that may be give you for that purpose, and you may be Assured of the protection of the King your Father and what Assistance you may stand in need of at all times.
Third. That you may shew farther proofs of your duty and Obedience to the King your father, should it happen that any Indian belonging to the herein mentioned Nations, plunder or kill any of His Majesty's Subjects in those any other of his Colonies now Settled or that hereafter may be Settled, you are Voluntarily and immediately to deliver the Offender up to the Officer Commanding this Garrison to be tried and punished agreeable to the Laws & Customs of this Colony at that time in force.
Fourth. You must Deliver up all Prisoners an Deserters that you have as soon as possible, should any white people Desert to you you are to send them immediately prisoners to the Post or Settlement nearest to you: But when any Families come to Settle by permission of the King you are to esteem them friends and Brothers.
Fifth. The French Commanding Officers of this Post have at times granted Lands in your Villages to give Testimony of my Intentions and of doing you the Greatest Justice I will tell persons settled on such Lands to remove immediately.
Sixth. At the request of Captain Morris whom I have sent round to all the Sout[hern] Nations Repeating the General Peace and also on account of Pondiac's Submission & promise of future good behaviour and Friendship to the English, I do hereby Pardon and For[give] him and he may meet me in the (page 530) utmost safety at Sandusky.
[By the] Power and Authority to me given and granted by his Ex[cellency ] Honourable Majr Genl Thomas Gage, Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Forces in North America. The above are the terms on which I Grant peace to the Nations heretofore mentioned, that is to say the Ottawaws the Chippewas and others hereunto Subscribing
Given under my hand and Seal at Detroit the Seventh day of September One thousand Seven hundred and Sixtyfour,
signature of Bradstreet.
By the power to us given by the Nations we represent, we do in their Name together with our selves most gratefully accept the terms above Granted, and we do most Solemnly bind ourselves and them to the true performance of each Article in every respect. In Witness whereof we have hereunto Affixed the Arms of the Nations we represent at Detroit this Seventh day of September One thousand and Seven hundred & Sixty four and in the fourth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third, King of Great Brittain, France and Ireland &ca &ca.
Space for names
of three chiefs and arms of nations.
[We who hereunto] Subscribe [with several] principal men of our Nation of Hurons begin present at the [sub]mission made by the Ottawaws and the Chippewaws and at the Peace Granted them and being Unani[mously of the] opinion that nothing can tend so much to the real safety and happiness of all the Indians [on] this Continent as following their Example beging the protection and making themselves Subjects of his Majesty King George the Third and at all times Obeying his will and Commands and [strictly] Keeping up to every Article of the peace concluded with the Ottawas and Chippewas most humbly request for ourselves and the Nation we represent to be received considered and Comprehended in [every] Article of the Submission received and the peace granted unto them as full and as ample as the said Ottawas and Chippewaws promising (page 531) most faithfully never to violate or depart [from] any Article therein contained: In Witness whereof we have set the Arms of the Nation of Hurons this Seventh day of September One thousand Seven hundred and Sixty four and in the fourth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third, King of England France & Ireland &c &c.
Space for name of
chief3 and arms of nation.
I [T]hereunto Subscribing [being] a Chief of the Miamis Nation and being sent here to be present at what should pass between the English the Ottawas and Chippewas, and also being directed by the Nation I represent if a peace should be granted to them to implore the Miamis might be comprehended therein in every respect as fully as the said Ottawas and Chippewas, which being granted to me I do in the Name of the Nation I represent bind my self and them in the most Solemn manner to the true performance of each Article in every respect as the Ottawas and Chippewas have done. In Witness thereof I do affix the Arms of the Nation I represent this Seventh day of September, One thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty four And [in the fourth year of the Reign of our now Sovereign Lord George the third King of England France and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c &ca]
Space for name of
chief and arms of nation.
[We the] Subscribers Chiefs of the Poutowattamis and Siake Nations having come too late to be present at the Submission made by the Ottawas and Chippewas and the peace Granted them, which being fully explained to us, And we approving every part thereof, having the same just sense of this good Work as the Hurons have. And wheras peace is granted to us on the same conditions, We do most gratefully accept it and hereby Bind ourselves and the whole of each Nation we represent to the true performance of each Article in every Respect, by hereunto Affixing the Arms of our respective Nations at Detroit this Seventh day of September, One thousand Seven hundred and Sixty four and in the fourth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign (page 532) Lord George the third King of Great Brittain, France and Ireland Defender of the faith &ca &ca.4
Space for names
of three chiefs and arms of nations.
[This day being the Ninth of September One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty four Wapacomagat with Ninety Young Warriors came to Detroit and desird admittance to Colonel Bradstreet which was granted and after the usual C[ompliments Wapacomagat desird Coll Bradstreet would Explain to him and his People [the Contents of] what had passed between him and the Several Nations of Indians with whom he had made peace: which was also complied with where upon Wapacomagat got up and declared that it gave him infinite pleasure to find the Indians had put themselves into the Arms of the Great King of England and that they were now his Subjects and Children, and beged that he, and all the Nation of the Messassagues might be received and comprehended in that Submission and Peace in as full and ample manner as those who had Subscribed [to it and] that they would never depart from any part thereof, which being granted Wapacomagat in the presence of One hundred Warriors set the Arms of their Nations to these presents the tenth Instant declaring he did it by the Unanimous desire and request of all his people present, and that he, they, and the rest of the Nation were Solemnly bound to fullfill, Obey , and Observe every part of the Submission and Articles of peace made at Detroit by the Nations thereunto Subscribing, bearing date September the Seventh, One thousand Seven hundred and Sixty four.
Colonel Bradstreet observing they made us of the word Brother[s] instead of Subjects and Children of the King of England told them nobody were to be admitted into the afore- (page 533) mentioned Submission and Articles of Peace, but such as acknowledge themselves Subjects and Children of the King of England.
Wapacomagat replied that it was very proper and they now throw aside the Name of Brother and should ever after Acknowledge themselves Subjects and Children of the King of England which they should always for the future call themselves.5
Transactions of a
FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC.
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 235-36, are listed the following papers which
were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 8th from William Darlington, New
York, about annoyances arising from his attempt to get an accountant for Sir
William through an intelligence office; one of the 8th from J. Kempe, New York,
recommending John Arthur for employment as a clerk; Duncan & Phyn's bill,
dated the 8th, against Sir William Johnson; Gilbert Forbes's bill, the 10th,
New York, for articles bought by William Darlington; Samuel & William
Baker's bill (fragment); and Francis Bassett's bill, the 11th, New York, for
articles bought by Mr Darlington.
1 Wassong had caused the death of Captain Donald Campbell, second in command at Detroit, when Campbell was a prisoner, Journal of Pontiac's Conspiracy, 1763, p. 150.
2 (1, p. 528) Captain Thomas Morris, of the 17th regiment. See Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 2:200-202, for a different description of Pontiac's mood. Also Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 10:1157.
3 (1, p. 531) Theata, described as a good Huron in The Journal of Pontiac's Conspiracy, p. 19, 82.
4 (1, p. 532) In the State Library is a duplicate of the proceedings of September 7th, which end at this point. The duplicate has the signature of Bradstreet and names and arms of Indians. Many burned portions of the manuscript selected for printing are here supplied from the duplicate. The proceedings which follow were held with the Mississaugas on September 10th.
5 (1, p. 533) A few burned of the portion of the proceedings of the 10th, held by Bradstreet with the Mississaugas, are here supplied from a duplicate which is recorded in the same manuscript as his proceedings of September 29th with the Wendots of Sandusky.
Return to TOC, p. 17
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