THE OHIO VALLEY-GREAT LAKES ETHNOHISTORY
ARCHIVES: THE MIAMI COLLECTION
It is noted that the following work from the Miami Archives should be read and considered within the historical context in which it was composed and printed. The opinions expressed and the language used do not reflect the opinions or standards of the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, but are, rather, indicative of thought in that historical moment during which the document was published.
(Michilimackinac, Oct. 15, 1764)
Howard, William in: (Enclosed in Bradstreet
to Gage, Dec. 7, 1764), Gage Papers,
American Series, William L.
I got to Michilmakinack the 22d of Sepr no accident happen'd but the lose of one Batteau, which would not have happen'd if we had any body that knew the Coarse, which is very shoel and Rockey, my Pilot told me at 12 OClock that I was within three Leagues of a River, it being moderate weather, concluded I should have reachd it very early, which I did not till after Dark, was oblidgd to go on, as I could not get a boat near the Shore for Rocks, and was till nine before I got a place that a Boat could get near, nor no River to be found, the Batteau in getting a Shore struck against a Rock damagd Her so much, that She could not be repaird, We lost nothing.-
My attempting to Land in the Night found I should endanger my Boats if I did, as many Rocks lye some distance from the Shore, and the wind blew hard on the Shore, which made me Land in the Afternoon. The Priest was at the Water side, with what few Inhabitants that remaind, Number of Famelys as follows viz-
Mr Parant who has had the care of the Fort delivered me the Keys of the Gates, and He prevented the Indians from destroying the Fort, employd as Interpreter.
Mr Frily a Reducd Gentleman, has taken care of some of the Traders goods, and a good Character given him, by the Traders, that you sent with me.
Mr Du Charm, has preservd a Quantity of Beaver &c; belonging to the English Traders, and a good Character given him.-
Mr Samchagrin deliverd to Mr Henry on our getting here several Packs of beaver He had securd for him, and has more belonging to other traders.
Mr Chavelier had been at Detroit, and got Majr Gladwins pass, to go to Labay with goods.-
Mr Cardin has a good character from the Traders, is very servicable to Me.-
Mr Bonrassee, has a good Character, dislik'd by the Indians, they lately killd all his Horses and Cows.-
On my arrival here an Inhabitant informd me that the Sawkes when here showd him a Scalp which they said was taken from the English, that they got it from a Nation, they would not Name, but that If I desird to know the Nation, that gave them the Scalp, they would let me know it in the Spring, they said the Scalp was taken the Night You lay at the Rappids, that the Man was shoeting Squirrells, and that the English Imagind the Man was Deserted. A chief of that Nation being here, I sent for him, and askd him, if He knew any thing of it, his answer was that He did not, and that as soon as He got home, would inquire about it, and if the report was true would send the Chief in the Spring to inform me of the truth and would endeavour to keep all the Nation quiet; if He could not, would come down and inform me of it.-
One of the Inhabitants that has been at Labay brought me a Pipe from the Chief of the Indians of the great plain at the Head of the Missisippy, Dyd with Green, that they did not send it as a pipe of Peace, but a Hatchet which they sent down to strike against the Chippeways which they would do as long as they had a Man alive, and if I wanted them to fight against those that had spilt the blood of their Brothers, I was only to paint the Pipe read, and send it back, which would be token enough for them, to revenge the Blood of their Brothers, and if I thought proper, I might let the Ottaways, Memomenies, Vinepecos and Sawkes, smoake out of the Pipe, and whilst they were smoaking, I should see them tremble with fear, as they know, that their Nation could destroy them, by blowing at them. They begd I would send some traders amongst them, so they could not live.-
Another Pipe from Monsieur Mawang chief of the Indians, Masters of the Lakes upon the Head of the Missisippy, with four Strings of Wampum with a Speach to the same purpose as the former, with an addition, that the Pipe was a token for me to pass through all Nations in the Name of Monsieur Mawang.-
A Trader being here with Majr Gladwins pass goeing that way, I sent two Strings of Wampum with some Tobacco to each chief, and a Speach in writing, thanking them for their Speach, and told them I should write to you about them.
I have made inquiry about them, and am informd by several that they are 30,000 Strong, and are always at Wars, with the Indians about Isle de Nois, Chippiways and some other Nations.-
The Ottaways near me, was informd by the Priest that they were discontented but could not tell the reason. If he found it out, would inform me of it. The day after they came to see me, and spoake with 6 Strings and two belts, the first as a welcome to the place, the Second to whipe away the blood that was spilt of their Brothers the English, and the third as a welcome back to this place.-
I had no wampum but spoake with some presents after I had done speaking, they told me, that they were doubly satisfied with my speach, and on their return home, told the Priest the same; and that in the Spring they would come to me and disperse a Cloud, by what I can learn, have reason to beleive, that they gave the Scalp to the Sawkes.-
I assembled the Inhabitants and Askd them before the French Officers, if they would take the same Oaths, as they had done at Detroit, which they readely consented to, the smalness of their Numbers, and haveing all Horses and Carts, concluded it would be for the good of the Post, their remaining. The Priest was the first Person that sighnd to the Oaths, and I think He can be of great Service to the Post, has given me all the assurance that a man can do of his Fidelity to the English.-
I receivd the 4 Peices of Cannon, two Wall Peices, brass Mortier, and most of the Tools with many other things not mentiond in your list, no balls for the Cannon, nor Shells for the Mortier, two more [?] Pounders would be of service to the place, what part of the Stockade the Indians had distroyd, the Inhabitants had repaird, the greatest part of it, is unservicable and If not replacd with New Pickets, beleive it will not stand another Year, the Wood being at a great distance, makes it impossible for 100 Men to repair it, or to get Fire Wood for themselves. If any bad Indians should be about the place, If 100 Men was sent early in the Spring from Detroit, I could secure the place from all attempts of Indians, I have had the inside lind with small Pickets, or else I beleive, Part would have fallen.-
The Vessell not appearing I gave Her ever, and concluded it would be off service to the Publick to keep the Post this Winter, I applyd to the Priest and the Inhabitants, to know (page 4) what Quantity of Corn they could spare me. they all told me, that If I would remain here, they would spare me, most of what they had, when they brought me their returns, found that I could support 60 Men till the 15th of May, everybody Included, at 8 Ounces of Pork, half a Pound of Bread and a Pint of Corn p Day, the Inhabitants have promisd me to supply me with all the Fish they can. I have purchas'd some nets here, so that I hope we shall do well, but if now supply comes up by the 20th of May must quit the place, and the Inhabitants will starve, If the Corn is not replac'd that they lent me, and it will be necessary that the Men I send away should return by the Middle of May, which will be about the time the Indians return here from hunting.-
the reason of my sending part of my Men away so soon, is that was informd here that the Winter setts in early which made me fear they might meet with difficultys before they could get to Detroit; and had I keept them longer, my Provisions would only have lasted till the end of April, had I returnd it would not been in my power, to have stayd as long as mentiond in your Orders to me, for want of Provisions, as some of the Barrells of flower did not weigh 50lb and many of the barrells of Pork deficient many peices. We have condemnd Seven Barrells.-
The Priest deliverd me Thos Jones who was taken by the Indians when Lieut Schylers party was cutt off. A Man that lives with him, bought said Jones from the Indians.-
I hope you will be able to prevail on the Genl to send me some presents for the Indians, without which, it will be difficult for me, to keep the Indians in temper, I shall not be profuse in anything shall be oblidgd if you'll let me know, whether my bills given to any traders for goods, will be answered. I shall keep a very exact account of every thing I give away, by what I have given already, find a Number of things will be necessary at this Post, expecially Powder and Rum; which I hope you'll be good enough to order here, by which Articles I shall have a chance of pleaseing the Indians. If (page 5) you'll be pleasd to Order some Barrells of Rum to be sent from Schenectady in the Sp[ring, I will pay for them, if the Gen will not, as I am certain my haveing them, will be fore the good of the Service, and the Security of this Post.-
When you write to the Genl Gage you'll let him know my reason of Staying the Winter here, and hope You, and the Genl will approve of the Step I have taken. I have got plenty of Wood, and shall get it all in before the Winter is over. As I shall not let any Man go out of the Fort when the Indians return, should they break out again, I should not be able to get fire Wood for another Winter, am in hopes that I shall have Men sent from Detroit to mend the Stockade.-
I have wrote to Mr Dan Schaack to send me some things in the Spring, beg you'll give him Permission to send them up, the First oppertunity I have, will send you, the Largest trout I can get, they are very good and plenty but small as yet.
I wish you a safe Passage to Albany. I am
Sr Yor Most Obt Humble
Octr 15th 1764
This Day the Vessell arrivd and Lieut Williams agreable to the Orders I gave him, returnd with Her, the Supply I hope will be sufficient till Spring if not too much demagd flower, I wish you safe to Albany. I am
Sr Yor Most Obt Humble
Octr 16th 1764
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