THE OHIO VALLEY-GREAT LAKES ETHNOHISTORY
ARCHIVES: THE MIAMI COLLECTION
It is noted that the following work from the Miami Archives should be read and considered within the historical context in which it was composed and printed. The opinions expressed and the language used do not reflect the opinions or standards of the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, but are, rather, indicative of thought in that historical moment during which the document was published.
(Nov. 24, 1764)
Johnson, Sir William in: The Papers
of Sir William Johnson,
vol. 4, pp. 599-604.
Father agrees to it, which I flatter myself he will with my persuasion when I see him. His going to you, would open a Door for more of the upper Nations to follow.
I am verry glad to hear the Boys who are now with you behave well, & make so good a progress in their Education, please to tell them that I shall regard them on their return, according to their diligence & merit, & that all their Freinds here desire to be remembered to 'em.
I am extremely oblidged to you for ye many polite & freindly Expressions You are pleased to bestow, and for yr Good Wishes in particular.- I heartily wish you all success in yr praiseworthy undertakings, and am Sincerely
Sir Yr real freind & Humble Servt
The REVRD MR WHEELOCK
REMARKS ON THE CONDUCT OF
Novbr 24th 1764
 [His harsh treatment at Setting off to the Inds. and their officers &] leaveing [some of them behind at every encampment from his flighty] and unsettled disposition [telling them sometimes he intended] encamping, on which Some of the [briskest Inds. went to kill some] Game, on their return, found the Army [moved on, so were obliged] to march along shore without any [necessarys and with difficulty] got to Detroit half Starved.- at other [times on being asked by] the Indn Officers (when the Boats were [crowded) how they and ye Inds.] should get along, (page 600) His answer always verry [ill natured, such as] Swim and be damned, or let them stay and be [ damned &c.;] all which was understood by many, & gave great [uneasiness2.]
2d. The readiness of our Inds to fall on those who came to Lance [aux Feuilles] which he prevented & then treated with the Enemy Ind, Without [ ] the Six Nations3 &ca & only telling them in a general way (after he had Settled matters [ ] them in some manner that he had made [a treaty] this gave the Ind a good deal of trouble, As did his tender [ ] of the Enemy (who came often to his Camp) cause of reflecting on such a conduct & early indulgence.
3d. His sending Messages to Pondiac in ye Manner he did Served only to put him on his guard, and when he found that Pondiac was not inclined to treat with him, and ordered his Army to embark In order to attack him, the Inds were as ready & alert as any of the Troops, & some went in ye Front, as Lieut Fisher says, in order to Engage first, Notwithstanding ye Author of that low scurrilous letter said to be wrote from Sandusky Affirms (amongst other falsehoods) that they would not fight the Miamis.- He does not know that there is any difference between the ottawaes &Miamis. His leaveing ye Miamis River4 when Matters were in so unsettled a way, & going to the Detroit, was ye reason of Capt Morris meeting with Ill treatment from the Inds along that River, His Sending him that way before Affairs were properly settled was rash & bad Policy, as was also his pardoning Minny Chein, & Godfry,5 & putting so much confidence in such notorious Villains, who for many reasons (page 601) could not be supposed to like the English, or act heartily against those Indians with whom they were firm freinds & in conjunction with whom they Plundered & Murdered so many of his Majestys [ ] [ ][ [ ] Several Nations at Detroit [ ] sent Interpreters, without acquainting [ ] with wt passed gave great offense, & made ye [ ] in the Affair, looking upon themselves to be ill trea[ ]ing ye Westeren Nations to acknowledge themselves Sub[ect M]ajesty, and giveing up to him the Dominion of all that Country [ ] & ample manner, as he has over any part of his other Dominns. [ gr]oss imposition on the Public, as it is easy to prove that they never [ ]nded anything of the Kind.- & had it been proposed, or made an Article of the Treaty, & understood, it would have been verry bad Policy, being well known to all who understand anything of the transactions of these four Years past with the Inds., that a Jealousy (Ariseing from some imprudent Steps ordered to be taken after ye Surrender of Canada &ca) of our Grasping at their Country, was one principal reason of the present Disturbance, wh can be made appear by many Sufficient Proofs.
6th. His passing Sandusky to go to Detroit without finishing what he had begun with the Shawanese &ca, or fighting them in case of a breach of their promises gave all the freind Inds a verry unfavourable opinion of his measures wh his conduct to ye last never in the least contributed to remove. when they arrived at Detroit, they asked Major Gladwin whether He knew what they were brought here for, & whether it was to make a Parade. His cutting to peices with a Tommohawk at a public meeting a Belt of Wampum wh he was spoke to with, greatly incensed all ye Inds, and made them look upon him in a verry strange light.
7th. His conduct when he returned from Detroit to Sandusky was so odd & fickle that it surprised his Army, as well as the (page 602) Inds, Vizt. his ordering a Fort to be built imediately on a low bottom Subject to be overflown with any freshet, then leaveing it unfinished, & going with the whole up the Sandusky River, at wh place the Inds promised in 7 days they would deliver up all the Prisns, after encamping there four days on a fine peice of Ground, He all of a Sudden gave orders for an imediate & Silent retreat, notwithstanding all ye Inds opposed it in a warm manner, & desired he would at least wait ye time appointed but to no purpose was all their entreaties. He returned in ye greatest hurry & Silence leaveing ye Inds behind, who waited the experation of the time limitted, then Joined the Army at Sandusky Lake [ ] [ ] [ ] who were taken Pris[ ] [ ] as always in force agst us [ ] [Se]veral who See them take back ye Prisoners [ ]
8th. His going away & leaveing at Sandusky Two [Jersey Soldiers who were sent] out by his Orders to Catch Fish for his [Table and Five Principal] Inds who were hunting, notwithstanding Several spoke to him [abt it & begged to] allow a Boat to stay an hour or two for them [ his Answer was,] they might Stay there & be damned, not a Boat should [stay one] Minute for them.6 So they must perish, or go to [ ]
9th. His encamping on a Beech with ye Army, [ ] a verry little way of a fine large River, wherein a tho[usand] Boats could lay with safety, by which obstinacy or w else it was, Half the Boats of the Army were lost, with [six] pcs of brass Ordnance Amunition, provsn, Mens Arms, [baggage] &ca wh reduced the Whole to ye utmost distress, but ab about 150 Inds their officers & some Rangers &ca who from that place were oblidged to take thro the Woods without any provisions, a March of above 400 Miles, (as they had Swamps (page 603) Ponds Rivers &ca to head & Cross,) to get even to Niagara; Sevrl of the Soldiers perished in the Woods, & along the Lake Side, & those, who reached the Pots, & Inhabitants, were almost Spent with fatiuge, Cold, & Hunger, & even those who came in ye Boats wh escaped, were left behind by him in ye utmost distress & Confusion. it is said that Shepperton recd a quantity of Ammunition at ye pl[ace] where ye boats were wrecked, & that a Markee was pitched in ye [ ] cover what was doing.
10th. His calling courts of Enquiry, & examineing some Frenchmen (whom he had always in His Family, & at his Table and who are well paid) what ye distance was to the great plains, &ca & what time it would take to march an Army there, shewed plainly his unwillingness to move yt way and the other Steps he has taken with regard to ye Indians was entirely to extricate himself from the blame & censure he expected would be thrown on him, & endeavour to fix it on the Inds, whom he never before consulted in all he had done.
[ ] [ ] [ ] expiration of the days [ ]  & Coll Bouquet did not [ ] [ ] ye 3d of Octbr wh was near a Month [ ] of giveing up the Prisns at Sandusky.
[ ] [ ] allowing French Men to trade from Detroit amgst: [ ]tant Inds, when he would not allow English Traders to bring [ ] their Effects from Detroit, which they had laying there sometime [ ] his granting a passport of Certificate to Shepperdton 7  Frenchman who Accompanied him from Detroit, & procureing him a Considerable Cargoe of Goods with 2 Boats & Eight Soldiers to carry him & Goods to Detroit, When the Troops & Indians were in the greatest Want of them, is worthy of Enquiry. His (page 604) giveing Deeds of Land to Sd Cheppartons Daughter & others wrong.
[ ] The Ridiculous Orders (never intended to be executed) given at Sandusky & the readiness of ye Men to March agst ye great plains with ye qty of provision (tho not the half of it necessary) said to be requisite for that March, shew plainly the design.
14th. No Partys of the new acquired Subjects could be got to go agst the Enemy Inds, notwithstandg. He by Instructions to Chepparton gave him power to go to any Expence in getting a few Inds, also directions to get Marsack, Louis Campo, & Checut to assist him, NB these were ye principal Actors in ye late Affair agst Us, but are now by some means unknown made use of as tho our most firm freinds.- these and many other unaccountable Steps taken dureing the Campaign, might be worthy of Enquiry into.
The Six Nations refused Sevrl times Shaking hand wth the Ottawaes & tho requested by Coll Bradstreet, who told them they were now freinds he having made peace wth them, to wh they ansrd that was more than they knew, as they did not understand a word passed between him & them, at length ye Ottawaes got up and Shoke the Six Nats by the Hand.- Capt. Hare.
Coll Bradstreet took Hare aside & asked him wt Orders he had from me, to wh he answered, that I had Strongly recommended to him & the rest a proper behaviour, & discharge of their Duty.
INDORSED: Novbr 24th 1764
Some Remarks on ye
Conduct of Cl. B - t
FROM WILLIAM WEYMAN ETC.
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 246, are listed the following papers which were
destroyed by fire: a letter of November 25th from William Tongue, New York,
inquiring about two certificates for the pay of interpreters and asking for a
draft on Mr Mortier; one of the 26th from Witham Marsh,
1 In Johnson's handwriting.
2 (1, p. 600) The foregoing matter in brackets is supplied from a quotation made by Parkman from the original manuscript, in The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 2:210-11.
3 (2, p. 600) Colonel Bradstreet's sentiment toward the Six Nations is illustrated in his "Thoughts on Indian Affairs," in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:690-94. The paper was written on December 4th, 1764, at Albany.
4 (3, p. 600) The Maumee river.
5 (4, p. 600) Miny Chesne and Jacques Godfroy participated in the taking of Fort Miami. After the siege of Detroit both were made prisoners by the British.
6 (1, p. 602) The bracketed words completing this incident are supplied from Parkman's quotation, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 2:210.
7 (1, p. 603) Probably Jean Baptiste Chapoton, a resident of Detroit. See Journal of Pontiac's Conspiracy, trans. R. Clyde Ford, p. 66.
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